While other neighboring regions were still barbaric and uncivilized, there were already bustling markets, amphitheaters full of laughter, stories of the gods on mount olympus, and the ancient forums where socrates, plato, and aristotle had already developed the ideas that are the prototypes of today’s western philosophy. Here, too, there was a profound influence on the later mighty ancient rome in all aspects of culture, art, music, and architecture.
Look at their characters, familiar, right? Yes, they are all symbols in the headaches of mathematics and physics. In fact, in athens, a majestic temple ruins, a thick marble column, you can not believe the existence of a legendary story.
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The origin of the name of athens is said to be this ……
Since its establishment, zeus, the king of the gods, predicted that it would become the most glorious city in the world. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, and poseidon, the god of the sea, competed for the right to crown the city and brought in the gods as judges. The gods said that whichever of you could produce from the earth what was most beneficial to mankind would own the city. Poseidon raised his trident to the ground and a sturdy white horse flew out of the chasm, then asked, is there a better gift than this? Athena scattered the seeds, and in a moment grew into a tall olive tree. She said, “Poseidon’s horses will only bring war and pain, but my olive tree will bring them harvest, abundance, peace and happiness. The gods nodded, and the city was named athens after athena. Athena looked at the city with affection and said, “This is my home, my children will grow up in happiness and freedom, and with the help of the gods, deliver freedom and peace to the world. Let’s follow the camera and enter this world famous city.
Acropolis of athens
The acropolis, located on a hill above the ground, takes its name from the greek words “High point” And “City” And was built in the 5th century b.c. The ruins of several famous temples remain today.
Temple of athena
The first thing you see at the entrance of the acropolis is the temple of athena’s victory. This temple was built after the victory over persia, and was the first temple in the acropolis to be supported entirely by ionic columns (one of the three major greek columns, commonly known as the woman’s columns, with a soft, swirling curve at the end of the column). The great goddess worshipped was athena, so the ionic columns were used to represent the feminine beauty. The temple faces the distant aegean sea, the direction of the battle against the persian fleet at that time. Inside, athena, the goddess of wisdom and war, is worshipped. The wings were removed, so it is also called the temple of the wingless goddess of victory. Without wings, she will not fly away, so that victory will always be with athens . Whenever there was a war, the athenians would come here to pray for blessings.
Odeon of herodes atticus
It was built in 161 ad and is still in use today. It is typical of the greek theater style. It is semi-circular, built on the slope of a hill. The romans learned from the past and put together two semicircles to form a whole circle and built on a flat ground. An example is the famous colosseum.
The next thing you see is the world-famous parthenon. Wow, a lot of roman columns …… This is a greek column, the ancestor of the roman column. Greek civilization predates rome by many years, and when this place was thriving, the romans were still playing in the mud. When the roman army conquered greece, they worshipped the people of the city and accepted all aspects of greek culture. The three pillars of greek architecture were also inherited and evolved into the later roman columns. So why is everyone called roman columns? The roman empire was glorious for a long time and had a great influence. But its cultural roots are still in ancient greece . The parthenon was built in 438 b.c., during the heyday of the athenian empire, and is considered one of the iconic buildings of the entire western civilization. It was used as an arsenal during the battle between venice and the turks for athens in 1687, and it is sad to see that the turkish cannonballs set fire to it, severely damaging the building and the sculptures inside.
Next to the parthenon, stands the temple of erechtheion. This temple, dedicated to the greek hero erechtheion, or some say to king erechtheion, was built 2,400 years ago. The one in the middle, is the legendary olive tree (actually planted by modern people) that athena had lit. The once beautiful decoration is so old that it no longer exists. What is attractive, however, are the six columns of ladies. The pillars carried the weight of the building. Because of the thin necks of the ladies, they are the weak point of the pillars and have difficulty in bearing the weight. After some thought, the designer let the hair bun hang down and thickened the pillars reasonably in order to bear the huge weight of the building.
At the end, i would like to post a picture of the real guardian of the acropolis: The countless meowers.
The roman agora
Greece was once occupied by the roman empire, so this bazaar has many remnants of roman architecture. At that time, only men were allowed to enter and leave the bazaar, and it was a center of cultural and social activities, in addition to trading. Here people talked about politics and shared ideas. Socrates debated his philosophical ideas with the people here.
Tower of the winds
Built in the first century ad. It is octagonal in shape, with relief carvings of the gods of the winds in eight directions.
Stoa of attalos
The only fully restored building among the greek ruins. The interior is completely open, with a roof that protects it from the wind and rain, and was a public venue for political speeches and philosophical debates, giving its name to the famous philosophical group, the columnists.
Temple of hephaestus
Vulcan, one of the 12 main gods of olympus, was a skilled craftsman. He was the one who built the pandora’s box. The temple of vulcan is the best preserved of all the temples in athens.
Changing of the guard ceremony
No one who comes to athens will miss this extremely local cultural ceremony of changing of the guard. The ceremony takes place every hour in front of the monument to the unknown martyrs in front of syntagma square, constitution square. This constitution square has no less political and historical status in athens than our tiananmen square. The square commemorates the original constitution promulgated here in 1834. The monument to the unknown martyrs has been laid here by successive heads of state who have visited athens. And it is also where athenians go on strikes and marches from time to time on a whim, a place where they make things happen. The changing of the guard ceremony is held throughout the day, but it is bigger on weekends (11 a.m. On sundays).
Architectural neoclassical trilogy
This trilogy refers to the academy of athens, the national university of athens and the national library of greece, all of which are neoclassical masterpieces of architecture.
Temple of poseidon
Who was the god poseidon? The brother of zeus, in greek mythology is one of the few big v well-known big bosses, neptune’s latin name comes from him, holding a trident, the power of the incomparable. At the beginning, the three brothers of zeus drew lots to determine the sphere of influence, zeus control the sky, hades control the underworld, poseidon’s kingdom is the sea, lakes and other waters. The temple dedicated to him is not actually in downtown athens, but in sounion, a 2-hour bus ride each way. Facing the vast aegean sea, the ancient temple no longer exists, the remaining pillars have survived thousands of years of weather, telling the story of its former glory. Sitting and watching the sunrise and sunset, savoring the sound of lapping waves, taking the essence of heaven and earth, taking the spirit of the sun and moon, this temple of the sea, unlike other temples, has a full transcendence and wildness. It is also the starting point of the aegean sea.
The origin of the aegean sea is a sobering story. According to legend, in order to get rid of the bull-headed monster on the island of milo, king aegean’s son theseus set sail and made a promise with his father that if he succeeded in returning the sailing ship with white sails, otherwise it would indicate an unfortunate shipwreck.
As a result, theseus not only succeeded in killing the monster, but also won the heart of princess ariadrini. Next should be, the prince and princess from now on to live a happy and beautiful life … Although the vulgar, but the majority of the masses said happy to see. However, the script is not like this drop …… The world has made people, the princess died of illness, the prince forgot to put up the white sail in grief. The old king who waited hard by the sea saw the fleet from afar, but did not see the white sail, all thoughts burned, jumped off the cliff here. This is the name of this sad sea.
A famous exhibition and convention center in athens. The name comes from evangelos zappas, a wealthy greek philanthropist who devoted his life to the revival of greece and succeeded in reviving the ancient tradition of the olympic games. The zapion palace was the first building built specifically for the modern olympic games.
The venue of the first modern olympic games, the only one to have hosted three olympic games. The handover ceremony of the olympic flame was held here. Built around 330 b.c. And still in use today, it is unique in the world for its all-marble construction, for which a quarry hill was hollowed out. The design of the whole venue follows the traditional semi-circular theater style of ancient greece, full of beautiful curved lines.
Temple of the oympian zeus
One of the largest temples in ancient greece, only 13 of the 104 columns remain, but it is still difficult to hide the majesty of the past. Finally, a few words about the columns of ancient greece. During the renaissance, architects wanted to revive the classical architecture of ancient greece, but they couldn’t figure out the rules of ancient greek columns.
To sum up, the columns in ancient greece can be divided into three types of columns.
At the same time, when architects mapped ancient buildings in the field, they realized that the ancient romans after vitruvian absorbed the elements of the three ancient greek columns in their later buildings, and on this basis, two new columns were developed:
How should these five types of columns be distinguished? The easiest way: Look at the head of the column.If the head of a column is bare, with a flat inverted conical platform on top of a column, it is a doric column.The ionic column has a little decoration, with an elegant scroll on each side of the capitals.Corinthian column head decoration is a little more complex, in the vortex under the carved many ranunculus leaves (acanthus).
But with the addition of the tuscan column, mixed column style, the column head alone is not enough. Tuscan column head and doric column style, the same are inverted conical platform, the difference between the two is the column body. The body of the tuscan column is smooth, while that of the doric column is carved with 20 vertical grooves.
The hybrid pillar style, as you can guess just by the name, is the most and most magnificent pillar style, which can be said to be a combination of the ionic and corinthian pillar styles. But just from the column head, it is not easy to distinguish it from the corinthian column style which is also magnificent. The most obvious difference between the two is in the ratio of the diameter of the column to the height of the column.
The hybrid column is the tallest and slimmest, with a ratio of 1:11 between the diameter and height of the column, while the corinthian column is also very slender and tall, but it is no match for the most ornate hybrid, with a ratio of 1:10 between the diameter and height of the column.
That said, chinese people usually have obstacles to remember these several words of foreign names, these column names above a look down, i guess have seen dizzy …..
In fact, as long as you understand the cultural background of these columns will be very good to remember. The ancient greeks believed that the rules of proportion that brought beauty to architecture were based on the proportions of the human body. The ancient greek philosopher protagoras once said that man is the measure of all things.
According to vitruvius, when the ancient greeks laid out the columns for the temple of apollo, they tried to measure the foot length and body length of the human body in order to ensure that the columns could withstand the load while maintaining a recognized aesthetic appearance. They found that the foot length of men was one-sixth of the body length, so they applied the same situation to the pillars – six times the thickness of the lower part of the pillar as the height of the pillar, including the head (later, the ancient greeks preferred to be more delicate, the more they preferred smaller sizes, so they determined the size of the pillar body diameter seven times the size of the doric column type (the height of the column).
In this way, the thick doric columns began to show the strength and beauty of men’s body proportions on buildings, and were considered a symbol of male beauty in greek culture.
Therefore, the doric column was a “Man on top of the earth”.
Later, the greeks used the same method to build the pillars of the temple of diana. The two scrolls are said to come from the beautiful curls of a woman’s hair, the longitudinal grooves of the column are the draped pleats of a dress, and the bottom of the column is designed as a boot-like protruding foot.
Therefore, the ionic column symbolizes “The goddess of beauty and slenderness”.
However, the name of the ancient greek column is actually derived from the region where it was created. The doric column comes from the ancient greek city-state of doric, which was popular in the peloponnese and sicily; the ionic column comes from the ancient greek colony of ionia, which was popular in the aegean islands and asia minor. And corinthian column style is worthy of the birth of magnificence and has a romantic story.
According to legend, a young girl died prematurely before her marriage in the ancient greek city of corinth, and her nursemaid collected the young girl’s beloved object in a basket, covered it with a piece of stone tile, and placed it on the tombstone. The basket happened to be pressed on the ranunculus grass roots. In the spring, ranunculus stems and leaves along the edge of the basket upward sprawl, and the stone tile pressed into the curve of the vortex. According to this softly grown ranunculus leaves of the basket design “Corinthian column”.
So the magnificent corinthian column proportions from the limbs more slender, slender girl image.
The tuscan column is more awkward. When the romans were first founded, although they conquered the greeks, they were completely captured by greek culture, but they were poor. It is said that when they repaired the columns, they could not even repair the most simple doric columns, so they had to stand there with a bare one and a whole one.
Later, the ancient roman empire finally became rich and powerful. In order to snow shame, how gorgeous how complex how to come, made a hybrid column style.