Japan Yoyogi Gymnasium
The Tokyo Yoyogi National Indoor Stadium was built in 1964 for the 18th Olympic Games. The total area of the stadium is 9.1 hectares, with a height difference of nearly 6 meters from north to south. The first stadium has two opposite crescent shapes, while the second stadium has a spiral shape, resembling a large snail, and both stadiums are suspended, with an open space in the middle forming the central plaza. Spacious pedestrian walkways connect the two halls, with VIP and management entrances underneath the walkways. The flow of visitors and traffic is also cleverly separated.
Due to the novel exterior and interior spatial approach and the clever combination of function and structure, this work has been highly evaluated by the architectural circles in Japan and other countries. Some even considered this building as a symbol of Japanese modern architecture reaching international standards. Kenzo Tange himself received a special award from the Architectural Association of Japan and other international awards for his work.
Pancho Stadium, Hungary
Pancho Stadium is located in the Felcsút neighborhood, 40 km west of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. Since 2004, one of the largest football education academies in the country has been training new football stars for Hungary. The academy is named after Ferenc Puskás, one of the world’s greatest soccer players and a European World Cup champion and runner-up.
Apart from the basic function of indicating the orientation, the built buildings and the stadium, more importantly, determine the building site of Pancho Stadium. In addition, the 8m slope was another challenge for the architects. The stadium is located in a low-lying area, which creates a low elevation on the west side. The relatively narrow space is further subdivided into smaller areas by a raised arched roof structure, with VIP areas, media rooms and separate entrance ways for the players on the west side, connected by a locking dome.
The patrons asked the entire complex to be designed with the concept of organic Hungarian architecture, wanting to create an iconic building that is unique in appearance, eye-catching and stands out even on a global scale. Therefore, the use of special materials was not just an occasional idea, but a necessity to enhance the architectural expression.
The lattice-patterned wooden roof juts out above the reinforced concrete beams and acts as a canopy over the entire stand area. The idea was to create a unique and extraordinary structure with its own architectural logic and clear form, combining in an innovative way the architectural trends of contemporary Hungarian stadiums with complex contours and structures.
Azur Arena Multi-Sport, France
The Azur Arena multi-purpose stadium is located in Trois Moulins, an industrial area in Antibes, France, divided between an existing business park in the west and a proposed park in the south. In the north-east, the stadium and the lush vegetation are located.
The newly built Azur Stadium is the name card symbolizing the identity of the area. The surrounding road triangles the site, and the project is a two-part trampoline hall and basketball court complex.
The design of the project was influenced not only by external factors, but also by the functional sequence and layout of the building itself, which dictated the shape of the gymnasium. The 5,000-seat basketball court is the central element of the complex. All interior semi-public and public function areas are arranged around the basketball court. The second major function area is the trampoline hall in the northeast corner of the gymnasium. The shell surrounding the gymnasium connects the trampoline hall and the basketball court into a unified whole. The façade is smooth and curvilinear, in keeping with the dynamic design language of the Azur Gymnasium. A canopy protruding from the building brings pleasant shade to the eastern courtyard, providing the perfect venue for afternoon and evening events.
The façade is formed by horizontally extending metal panels. The stripes between the panels are the main organizational feature of the façade and form a soft, sharp transition to the roof. At night, the banded glass windows on the façade cast a bright light that energizes the stadium.
Access is designed to respond to the uneven topography, with all floors and entryways forming a continuous loop. In the east, the main entrance can be accessed from the second level; spectators enter the main courtyard through the northeast parking lot and then through a circular porch into a transparent entrance hall.
All zones and basketball courts are accessible from the interior. The athlete’s entrance is located on the west side of the first floor, separated from the spectator pathway, while the southwest entrance and transportation pathway are also located on this floor.
The multi-directional, multi-level entrance pathway makes it possible to hold several events at the same time – e.g. competitions in the trampoline hall and the warm-up hall, sports competitions or cultural events on the basketball court.
Belarus Borisov Football Stadium
Borisov football stadium was opened because the city of Borisov celebrated an important anniversary in 2012. The scheme took into account the natural advantages of the location and the topographical interventions that existed, preserving as many existing trees as possible on the site. As the stadium has 13,000 seats, this will require an additional 3,000 square meters of public space and a four-star rating according to the FIFA classification. The stadium will provide for the organisation of traffic, controlled or independent viewing of matches and daily use of such external factors. Finally, the complexity of this dominant city’s accepted image needed to be built into the surrounding soft landscaping.
The arena forms a unified dome, giving the image of a single enclosed object. The appearance of the dome gives the impression of a fragile stretched perforated textile being lifted over the stadium frame. The covered area between the façade and the stands is a public thoroughfare with public utilities (shops, bars, service areas and toilets), and a promenade above (offices, VIP lounges and anterooms). Internally, the circular arena provides good silence and encourages a lively atmosphere from the players and fans between matches, but with concentration during training.
The pitch is oriented north-south and has a total area of 85 x 105 m, of which, 68 x 105 m is used for matches. The remaining area has enough space to install advertising screens and house photographers and cameras. Seating was arranged around the playing field, with 17 rows along the edge and 27-28 rows on the short side. The porch on the west side above is reserved for the press cabin, with tables and chairs for 40 reporters, a staircase with direct access to the press room, and a mixed area.
On the east side is the VIP stand with seating for 250, a bar and entertainment space. VIPs have direct access via an elevator in the entrance area with car access. Athletes have a separate access on a lower platform where there is a group bus and parking. At each entrance point to the venue there are two locker rooms, mixing areas, physiotherapy and doping control spaces.
Brazil Mane-Garinsa National Stadium
The aim of the new stadium was to provide an ideal solution, emphasizing the significance of its historical tradition while giving it a unique and transcendent architectural image. As the largest building on the Brasilia city axis, the stadium is integrated into the overall urban plan in a monumental and solemn manner. The stadium’s bowl-shaped stand is surrounded by a circular plaza with all the traffic connections set within it and covered by a canopy above the “forest of columns”.
The concrete columns have a diameter of 1,20 meters and reach a maximum height of 59 meters. The clarity and simplicity of the design is emphasised by the quarterly simplification of the structural elements, which retain almost their original form, with concrete as the basic material in keeping with Brazilian building tradition. The suspended roof consists of a two-layer structure, fixed by concrete pressure rings. The upper layer is a translucent PTFE membrane structure, while the lower layer is a back-lit membrane structure.
An elaborate roof designed by the German stadium architects will be suspended over the “Stadium Bowl Stand” designed by Eduardo Castro Melo, which will provide excellent visual conditions for spectators to watch the event.